What’s Driving Automakers Out of Europe?

Automakers, in quick succession, have moved in recent weeks to end parts of their operations in Europe. Nissan can be the latest: On Tuesday, in which confirmed in which in which could cease assembling Infiniti cars at its plant in northeast England.

The moves, during Britain’s wrenching debate over its departure coming from the European Union, known as Brexit, have raised the question: can be Brexit forcing the carmaking industry out of Britain?

in which’s not quite so simple. Traditional car manufacturers, in Britain along with also also in Europe over all, have been buffeted by forces around the entire world, along with also also they assess where they want to make the next design of a car every few years or so.

As automakers allocate resources, they have been balancing the need to respond to these adjustments with the justifications for producing cars in places like Britain.

Here are some of the forces reshaping the industry.

inside the wake of Volkswagen’s diesel-cheating scandal in 2015, when in which used software to trick emissions tests, awareness of the harmful effects of fossil fuels has prompted stricter regulation throughout the Continent.

Some German cities are banning older diesel engines in an effort to reduce pollution in urban areas. London has initiated a levy on drivers of older diesel vehicles. Britain along with also also France plan to phase out sales of brand new diesel along with also also gasoline-powered cars by 2040.

Norway can be aiming to sell only electric cars by 2025, while India can be aiming to be all electric by 2030.

Carmakers are racing to respond. Volkswagen said Tuesday in which in which intended to sell 22 million electric cars over the next 10 years, compared with its previous goal of 15 million, along with also also in which the company could aim to be carbon neutral by 2050.

The investments necessary for building electric cars have added to cost pressures for automakers in which, in some cases, have struggled to turn a profit in Europe.

In justifying the closing of its Swindon factory, Honda said in which wanted to focus on electrification. “The significant challenges of electrification will see Honda revise its global manufacturing operations, along with also also focus activity in regions where in which expects to have high production volumes,” the company said.

As carmakers channel billions of dollars into grabbing a portion of the electric car market, many are looking to China, which can be the entire world’s largest maker along with also also seller of electric cars.

China wants one in every 5 cars sold to run on an alternative fuel by 2025, along with also also officials have said the country will get rid of internal combustion engines in brand new cars altogether. The country’s rules also require carmakers to sell more alternative-energy cars if they want to continue selling regular types.

This particular has prompted car companies to realign where they make along with also also develop cars.

Tesla has opened a factory there. Volkswagen signed an agreement with the Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group last year to develop an electric vehicle. General Motors has made China the hub of its electric car research along with also also development, while both Renault-Nissan along with also also Ford have joint electric-car ventures in China.

In their efforts to grab a share of the growing market for electric cars, traditional car companies are competing not just with each different however also against technology companies.

Uber, Alphabet along with also also Tesla are channeling money into electric cars along with also also autonomous cars, while reshaping the way people travel with ride-hailing services.

This particular has prompted rivals to team up, or to work with the technology companies, to ensure they are not left behind.

This particular shift has accelerated change along with also also added to costs, said Peter Wells, a professor at the Center for Automotive Industry Research at the Cardiff Business School in Wales. along with also also in which has prompted companies to scrutinize whether they should maintain operations in markets in which are not likely to grow along with also also could become more difficult to serve.

“Companies around the entire world are having to re-evaluate their positions,” Mr. Wells said.