‘Yellow Vest’ Protests Shake France. Here’s the Lesson for Climate Change.

PARIS — Vincent Picard describes himself as a “militant ecologist.” however when protesters took to the streets to express their rage over a planned increase in France’s fuel tax, Mr. Picard joined their ranks.

He acknowledges of which the tax might encourage the conservation considered critical for a healthy planet. however with the nearest train station 35 minutes away, he has to drive to work every day.

“I am conscious of which we have reached the end of fossil fuels as well as of which we have to modify our habits,” said Mr. Picard, a 32-year-old pastry maker through northern France. however, he added, “You have to continue to live.”

The gas tax can be part of a continuing effort started out by France in 2014 to regularly raise the taxes on fossil fuels to fight global climate change.

The French inside the past have been far more tolerant than most societies in accepting high taxes on gasoline as well as diesel fuels. The cost of a gallon of gas in France can be about $6 or more — with taxes accounting for about 60 percent of of which — compared with about $3 on average inside the United States, where high fuel taxes have been a nonstarter.

however the French government’s tax increase, written into law before President Emmanuel Macron was elected, proved a tipping point for hard-pressed families already laboring under some of Europe’s highest overall tax burdens.

Rather than spurring the effort to cut fossil fuel use, the misstep today threatens to set the item back.

the item angered those who can least afford to pay more to get to work as well as drop off their children at school. Fossil fuel champions — including President Trump — denounced the tax. as well as the backlash over the item landed that has a thud during the critical United Nations climate change negotiations underway in Poland, which Édouard Philippe, France’s prime minister, was forced to skip because of bubbling unrest at home.

More than of which, the decision This particular week to annul the tax increase came after protests nationwide turned violent, causing four deaths as well as millions of dollars in damage, as well as injuring more than 250 people.

If nothing else, the maelstrom in France showed of which the political challenge of how to create incentives for people to move away through fossil fuels requires much more than raising a tax on gas at the pump or subsidizing solar panels.

The violent blowback by the Yellow Vest movement — named for the roadside vest adopted by the protesters of which signals drivers in despair — exposed several failures.

Of the 34 billion euros, or $39 billion, of which the French government can be required to raise This particular year through the fuel tax, less than a fourth can be earmarked for measures of which could help people of modest means transition to less-polluting transportation, said Daniel M. Kammen, a professor at the University of California at Berkeley who specializes in energy policy.

Much more of the fuel tax proceeds, Mr. Kammen said, could be used to lower the prices of electric vehicles, including taxis, to help make them more affordable for commuters in areas without public transportation. Or they could be used to develop more charging stations or subsidize big batteries to enable taxis to do long trips.

“So while President Macron has highlighted the need for funds to invest in clean energy, of which can be not actually what was planned,” Mr. Kammen said.

Politically, the backlash came through those who could least afford to give up their cars — smaller-town as well as suburban residents priced out of big cities as well as unhappy with Mr. Macron on a host of different issues already. the item did not help of which Mr. Macron had lowered taxes on the rich in one of his earliest tax code alterations.

“This particular situation illustrates how equity as well as fairness considerations have to be built into the design of such policies,” Alden Meyer, policy director at the Union of Concerned Scientists, said by email through the United Nations climate talks.

inside the United States — where the vehicle can be king, public transportation lags as well as the automobile as well as energy industries maintain powerful lobbies — politicians toy with raising fuel prices at their own risk.

What France’s experience has made clear, analysts say, can be of which fuel taxes work best as part of a more comprehensive plan of which tries to offset the disproportionate pain felt by lower-income workers who can least afford the alterations.

Mr. Picard, the pastry chef, for instance, earns €1,280 a month, or about $1,450, after payroll taxes. For him, the planned tax increase of 6 or 7 cents per liter of gas “can be enormous,” he said.

“Imagine how violent This particular tax can be for those people who earn less than me as well as who are not conscious of environmental needs,” added Mr. Picard, who lives in Woincourt, a village of 500 people.

however if those struggles are unfamiliar to Mr. Macron, a millionaire as well as former investment banker, many who study climate change goals sympathize with the Yellow Vests as well as support creating relief part of the package.

“Everybody loves to talk about climate goals as well as preserving the environment, however nobody can be talking about the today,” said Vonda Brunsting, a researcher at Harvard’s Kennedy School who works on environmentally responsible investment policy.

“Some governments are intent on having ambitious plans for meeting the Paris climate conference goals, however they have to survive politically long enough to put them in place,” she added. “Macron as well as the French government have skipped over the part involving the workers as well as the community.”

Among the forms of help of which economists point to are offering subsidies to encourage people to use less-polluting forms of energy, as well as expanding transit networks rather than closing them.

Another element, especially in France, can be increasing workers’ disposable income by pushing for higher wages as well as adjusting fixed incomes for the elderly to ensure of which they can better afford energy-efficient technology.

“We are inside the transition period as well as the government has run into political economic problems,” said Philippe Aghion, an economist at the prestigious College de France who advised Mr. Macron during his presidential campaign. “So you need to smooth out This particular period. You need to reach out a hand to help people across the bridge.”

He believes quite a few countries may have to violate the European Union’s 3 percent cap on annual deficits to ensure of which they can borrow more to fund their energy transitions.

The cap “was not designed for countries undergoing structural reforms,” he said.

Camilla Born, who analyzes energy policy at the research as well as advocacy group E3G, said of which while Mr. Macron could be faulted for not putting in place social measures of which might allow French citizens to “ride out the challenges of change,” the cost of inaction was ultimately far more costly.

“The reason we need to take action,” she said, “can be because the social as well as economic costs of climate impacts are far worse.”